Measures to reduce external loading and other pressures
- Last Updated on Wednesday, 17 September 2014 13:02
Efficient and environmentally good use of manure for protection of watercourses
Over half of the phosphorus and nitrogen load of Finnish watercourses is coming from agriculture. The prices of artificial fertilizers have risen in recent decades. In regions like North Savo, where animal husbandry, especially dairy cattle farming, is highly concentrated, it is important that farms with animal husbandry emphasise good handling of manure. Development of optimal manure and slurry treatment and spreading techniques is important and in these tailored fertilizing practices according to actual nutrient needs play central role. Additional point of view is possibilities of co-operation in use of manure. If animal farms have a surplus of nutrients in manure in relation to their own measured need, a farm to farm collaboration by “Manure Bank” is one solution. Farms with only crop-growing can obtain organic fertilizers from the excess of animal husbandry. In this way both agricultural pollution and nutrient loading to lakes and rivers and costs of crop-growing can be reduced. Moreover, contracts and cooperation between nearby farms in manure and slurry treatment (like separation) and spreading can enhance remarkably the utilization of nutrients.
More information: Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland
Waste water treatment of small villages by on-site household units
The regional land use plan at Lake Balaton states that building permission cannot be issued in areas where sewage treatment is not solved. Lack of solutions limits development of small villages. In small villages the construction of sewers and treatment plants may not be cost-efficient. On-site treatment units can solve this problem. Village level solutions require additional coordination efforts both in planning, installation, and operation.
Waste water treatment of small villages was solved by providing individual small-scale wastewater treatment installations to households. Installations reduce the load of organic matter and nutrients from wastewaters. Depending on sensitivity of an area to loads, the required effluent quality should not exceed 75 (100) mg/l COD; 15 (25) mg/l BOD and 10 mg/l NH4-N or 25 mg/l inorganic N. There are no regulatory requirements for total phosphorus concentration. Installations are recommended to be used in small villages where centralised system is not cost-efficient.
More information: Lake Balaton Development Coordination Agency (LBDCA), Hungary